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## Example 11 - contour and XY plot

This example reads an ASCII file containing monthly climatological zonal winds for Cocos Island, and creates a contour plot of these winds and a multi-curve XY plot of the values at each level.

gsun11n.ncl
u.cocos (data file)
and then type:
ncl gsun11n.ncl

## Output from example 11

(Click on any frame to see it enlarged.)

## NCL code for example 11

```  1. load "\$NCARG_ROOT/lib/ncarg/nclscripts/csm/gsn_code.ncl"
2.
4. ;
5. ; Add a cyclic point in "x" to a 2D array
6. ; for a lat/lon plot "x"  corresponds to "lon"
7. ;                    "ny" corresponds to "nlat"
8. ;                    "mx" corresponds to "mlon"
9. local dims, newdata, ny, mx, mx1
10. begin
11.     dims    = dimsizes(data)
12.     ny      = dims(0)
13.     mx      = dims(1)
14.     mx1     = mx+1
15.
16.     newdata = new((/ny  ,mx1/),float)
17.
18.     newdata(:,0:mx-1) = data             ; pass everything
19.     newdata(:,mx)     = (/ data(:,0) /)  ; value only
20.
21.     if((.not.ismissing(newdata!1)) .and. iscoord(data,newdata!1)) then
22.         newdata&\$newdata!1\$(mx) = newdata&\$newdata!1\$(0)
23.     end if
24.
25.     return(newdata)
26. end
27.
28. begin
29.   wks = gsn_open_wks("x11","gsun11n")  ; Open an X11 workstation.
30.
31.   cmap = (/(/1.,1.,1./), (/0.,0.,0./)/)  ; Change background to white
32.   gsn_define_colormap(wks,cmap)          ; and foreground to black.
33.
35.
36.   pressure  = data(:,0)    ; First column of data is pressure (mb).
37.   height    = data(:,1)    ; Second column is height (km).
38.   u         = data(:,2:13) ; Rest of columns are climatological zonal winds
39.                            ; (u: m/s)
40.   unew = addcyclic(u)  ; Copy first point to end of array for continuity.
41.
42. ;----------- Begin first plot -----------------------------------------
43.
44.   resources = True
45.
46.   resources@tiMainString   = ":F26:Cocos Island"   ; Main title.
47.   resources@tiYAxisString  = ":F25:Pressure (mb)"  ; Y axes label.
48.
49.   resources@sfYCStartV = max(pressure)   ; Indicate start and end of left
50.   resources@sfYCEndV   = min(pressure)   ; Y axes values.
51.
52.   resources@trYReverse  = True    ; Reverse the Y values.
53.   resources@trYLog      = True    ; Use log scale.
54.
55.   resources@tmXBMode      = "Explicit"   ; Define your own tick mark labels.
56.   resources@tmXBLabelFont = 25           ; Change font of labels.
57.   resources@tmXBLabelFontHeightF = 0.015 ; Change font height of labels.
58.   resources@tmXBMinorOn   = False        ; No minor tick marks.
59.   resources@tmXBValues    = ispan(0,12,1); Location to put tick mark labels
60.                                          ; (13 points with January repeated).
61.   resources@tmXBLabels    = (/"Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","May","Jun",\
62.                               "Jul","Aug","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dec","Jan"/)
63.
64.   resources@tmYUseLeft    = False      ; Keep right axis independent of left.
65.   resources@tmYRLabelsOn  = True       ; Turn on right axis labels.
66.   resources@tmYRLabelFont = 25         ; Change font of labels.
67.   resources@tmYROn        = True       ; Turn on right axis tick marks.
68.   resources@tmYRMinorOn   = False      ; No minor tick marks.
69.
70.   resources@tmYRMode      = "Explicit"  ; Define own tick mark labels.
71.   hnice = fspan(0.,22.,12)              ; Set range of "nice" height values.
72.   pnice = ftcurv(height,pressure,hnice) ; Calculate "nice" pressure values.
73.   resources@tmYRValues    = pnice       ; At each "nice" pressure value,
74.   resources@tmYRLabels    = hnice       ; put a "height" value label.
75.
76.   resources@tmYLMode      = "Explicit" ; Define own tick mark labels.
77.   resources@tmYLLabelFont = 25         ; Change the font.
78.   resources@tmYLValues    = (/1000.,  800., 700., 500., 400., 300., \
79.                                250.,  200., 150., 100.,  50./)
80.   resources@tmYLLabels    = (/"1000","800","700","500","400","300", \
81.                                "250","200","150","100", "50"/)
82.   resources@tmYLMinorOn   = False        ; No minor tick marks.
83.
84.   resources@cnFillOn          = True  ; Turn on contour level fill.
85.   resources@cnMonoFillColor   = True  ; Use one fill color.
86.   resources@cnMonoFillPattern = False ; Use multiple fill patterns.
87.
88.   resources@cnLineLabelAngleF = 0. ; Draw contour line labels right-side up.
89.   resources@cnLevelSpacingF   = 1.0
90.
91.   resources@gsnDraw  = False  ; Don't draw the plot or advance the
92.   resources@gsnFrame = False  ; frame in the call to gsn_contour.
93.
94.   contour = gsn_contour(wks, unew, resources)  ; Create a contour plot.
95.
96.   getvalues contour           ; Retrieve contour levels.
97.     "cnLevels"   : levels
98.   end getvalues
99.
100.   patterns  = new(dimsizes(levels)+1,integer) ; Create array for fill
101.   patterns(:)  = -1 	                      ; patterns and initialize
102.                                               ; it to transparent.
103.
104.   do i=0,dimsizes(levels)-1         ; Fill contour levels depending on
105.     if(levels(i).le.-6.) then       ; different criteria.
106.       patterns(i) = 5               ; Hatching
107.     else
108.       if(levels(i).gt.0.) then
109.         patterns(i) = 17            ; Stipple
110.       end if
111.     end if
112.   end do
113.   patterns(i)  = 17 ; last pattern
114.
115.   setvalues contour    ; Set the new patterns and make them more dense.
116.     "cnFillPatterns" : patterns
117.     "cnFillScaleF"   : 0.8
118.   end setvalues
119.
120.   draw(contour)  ; Draw the contour plot.
121.
122.   txres               = True    ; Annotate plot with some text.
123.   txres@txFontHeightF = 0.015
124.   gsn_text_ndc(wks,":F25:U Component",  .270,.815,txres)
125.   gsn_text_ndc(wks,":F25:(m-s:S:-1:N:)",.765,.815,txres)
126.
127.
128.   txres@txFontHeightF = 0.025   ; Label right Y axis.
129.   txres@txAngleF      = 90.
130.   gsn_text_ndc(wks,":F25:Height (km)",.89,.5,txres)
131.
132.   frame(wks) ; Advance the frame.
133.
134. ;----------- Begin second plot -----------------------------------------
135.
137.
138.   resources = True
139.   resources@tiMainString  = ":F26:Cocos Island"
140.   resources@tiXAxisString = ":F25:Month"
141.   resources@tiYAxisString = ":F25:Amplitude (m/s)"
142.
143.   resources@tmXBMode      = "Explicit"   ; Define your own tick mark labels.
144.   resources@tmXBLabelFont = 25           ; Change font of labels.
145.   resources@tmXBLabelFontHeightF = 0.015 ; Change font height of labels.
146.   resources@tmXBMinorOn   = False        ; No minor tick marks.
147.   resources@tmXBValues    = ispan(0,12,1); Values from 0 to 12.
148.   resources@tmXBLabels    = (/"Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","May","Jun",\
149.                               "Jul","Aug","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dec","Jan"/)
150.
151.   xy = gsn_xy(wks,ispan(0,12,1),unew,resources) ; Create and draw an XY plot.
152.
153. end
```

## Explanation of example 11

Lines 3-26:

```function addcyclic(data[*][*]:float)
. . .
return(newdata)
end
```
Define a function to make the data cyclic. This function is described in more detail in example 9.

This function may produce the following warning message:

warning:Dimension (1) has not been defined
which you can safely ignore. This warning is coming from the partial statement in line 21 that reads:

```    ismissing(newdata!1)
```
newdata doesn't have any named dimensions, so the syntax newdata!1 is causing the warning message.

Line 28:

```begin
```
Begin the main program of the NCL script.

Lines 34-38:

```  data     = asciiread("u.cocos",(/39,14/),"float")

pressure  = data(:,0)
height    = data(:,1)
u         = data(:,2:13)
```
The data in the ASCII file "u.cocos" are in 14 columns by 39 rows, where the first column contains pressure values (millibars), the second column contains height values (kilometers), and columns 3-14 contain the zonal wind values (m/s). Columns 3-14 represent months of the year.

Read these values with the function asciiread into a 2-dimensional float array called data that is dimensioned 39 x 14, and then extract the first two columns of data to 1-dimensional float arrays pressure and height, and the rest of the columns to a 2-dimensional array u (dimensioned 39 x 12).

Line 40:

```  unew = addcyclic(u)
```
Using the function addcyclic that you defined above, add a "cyclic" point to u and call the new array unew. Since the dimension of u is 39 x 12, unew will be dimensioned 39 x 13.

Line 42:

```;----------- Begin first plot -----------------------------------------
```
Draw a contour plot of unew. Label the left Y axis with pressure values (using log scaling), the right Y axis with height values (using linear scaling), and the X axis with strings representing the months of the year. Fill the contour levels that are less than -6.0 with one pattern, the contour levels greater than 0.0 with another pattern, and leave the contour levels between values -6.0 and 0.0 unfilled.

Lines 49-50:

```  resources@sfYCStartV = max(pressure)
resources@sfYCEndV   = min(pressure)
```
Set these two resources to indicate the minimum and maximum values of the Y axis.

Lines 52-53:

```  resources@trYReverse  = True
resources@trYLog      = True
```
Set the resource trYReverse to True to reverse the Y axis values, trYLog resource to True to indicate you want log scaling in the Y direction.

Transformation resources are described in more detail in example 7.

Lines 55-62:

```  resources@tmXBMode      = "Explicit"
resources@tmXBLabelFont = 25
resources@tmXBLabelFontHeightF = 0.015
resources@tmXBMinorOn   = False
resources@tmXBValues    = ispan(0,12,1)

resources@tmXBLabels    = (/"Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","May","Jun",\
"Jul","Aug","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dec","Jan"/)
```
By setting the resource tmXBMode to "Explicit", NCL uses the array resource tmXBValues to determine the coordinate positions of the major tick marks, and tmXBLabels to determine the labels to put at each of the coordinate positions specified by tmXBValues. In lines 58-59 above, you are indicating you want major tick marks at values 0, 1, 2, . . ., 12 on the X axis, and the labels "Jan, "Feb", "Mar", . . ., "Jan" at each of these tick marks.

Note: You must set the tick mark values in the same data space that you have set up the corresponding axis to be. Since you did not explicitly define the limits of the X axis, the minimum value defaults to 0 and the maximum value defaults to n-1, where n is the number of points in the X direction. In this case, n is 13 because in the call to gsn_contour below, you are contouring unew which has 13 points in the X direction.

Lines 64-68:

```  resources@tmYUseLeft    = False
resources@tmYRLabelsOn  = True
resources@tmYRLabelFont = 25
resources@tmYROn        = True
resources@tmYRMinorOn   = False
```
Set tmYRLabelsOn and tmYROn to True to label the right Y axes (which by default is not labeled at all). By default, if you set these resources to True, then whatever you set for the left Y axis is done for the right Y axis. To make the right Y axis independent of the left Y axis, set tmYUseLeft to False.

The resources tmYRLabelFont and tmYRMinorOn change the font and turn off minor tick marks for the right Y axis.

Lines 70-74:

```  resources@tmYRMode      = "Explicit"
hnice = fspan(0.,22.,12)
pnice = ftcurv(height,pressure,hnice)
resources@tmYRValues    = pnice
resources@tmYRLabels    = hnice
```
The height values read in from the data file are specified at decreasing and unequally spaced pressure values (verify this with print(pressure)). Use the routine ftcurv to interpolate the pressure values at equally spaced height values.

The first argument of ftcurv is a 1-dimensional array of any size (npts) containing the abscissae for the input function, and the second argument is a 1-dimensional array containing the npts functional values of the input function. The third argument is a 1-dimensional array (size npts2) containing the abscissae for the interpolated values. In this case, you are passing hnice for the third argument, which contains 12 equally spaced values from 0 to 22 in increments of 2 (returned from the fspan function). These "nice" height values are used because the actual height values go from 0.11 to 20.66 (which you can verify with print(min(height)) and print(max(height)). ftcurv returns a 1-dimensional array of size npts2 that contains the interpolated function values at the points specified by the third argument passed to it.

Now that you have interpolated pressure values at "nice" height values, use these two arrays to specify the locations and labels for the tick marks on the right Y axis.

Lines 76-82:

```  resources@tmYLMode      = "Explicit"
resources@tmYLLabelFont = 25
resources@tmYLValues    = (/1000.,  800., 700., 500., 400., 300., \
250., 200., 150., 100., 50./)
resources@tmYLLabels    = (/"1000","800","700","500","400","300", \
"250","200","150","100", "50"/)
resources@tmYLMinorOn   = False
```
Set tmYLMode to "Explicit" to set the tick marks and labels for the left Y axis using the resource arrays tmYLValues and tmYLLabels.

Lines 84-86:

```  resources@cnFillOn          = True
resources@cnMonoFillColor   = True
resources@cnMonoFillPattern = False
```
Turn on contour fill and indicate that you want multiple fill patterns instead of solid fill.

Line 88:

```  resources@cnLineLabelAngleF = 0.
```
Set cnLineLabelAngleF to 0.0 to keep the contour line labels from being rotated. This resource has a default of -1.0, which causes line labels to be angled in the direction of the tangent of the contour line at the location of the label.

Line 89:

```  resources@cnLevelSpacingF   = 1.0
```
Set the contour level spacing to 1.0.

Line 91:

```  resources@gsnDraw  = False
```
The resource gsnDraw is another resource that is specific to the gsn_* suite of plotting functions. By setting this to False, you are indicating that you don't want the plotting function (gsn_contour in this case) to draw the plot. This is done so that you can retrieve a resource from the plot after it is created and set some other resources based on the one you retrieved (more on this below) before drawing the contour plot.

Line 92:

```  resources@gsnFrame = False
```
Since you don't want gsn_contour to draw the plot, you don't want it to advance the frame either, so set gsnFrame to False.

Line 94:

```  contour = gsn_contour(wks, unew, resources)
```
Create a contour plot of unew. Since you set gsnDraw to False, no plot is drawn at this point.

Lines 96-98:

```  getvalues contour
"cnLevels"   : levels
end getvalues
```
Now that you've created the contour plot, use the getvalues statement to retrieve the contour level values (cnLevels) that were calculated based on the data you passed to gsn_contour. The getvalues statement is described in more detail in example 4.

Lines 100-113:

```  patterns  = new(dimsizes(levels)+1,integer)
patterns(:)  = -1

do i=0,dimsizes(levels)-1
if(levels(i).le.-6.) then
patterns(i) = 5
else
if(levels(i).gt.0.) then
patterns(i) = 17
end if
end if
end do
patterns(i)  = 17
```
As described in example 5, there is always one more fill area than there are contour levels. Create a new integer array called patterns that contains one more element than the levels array that you retrieved in lines 96-98, and use it to specify the fill patterns that you want for each level. You are initializing this array to pattern index -1 (transparent), and then in the if-else-end if statement, you are setting the pattern to index 5 (a cross hatch pattern) if the corresponding contour level value is less than or equal to -6.0, and to index 17 (a stipple pattern) if the corresponding contour level value is greater than 0.0.

Lines 115-118:

```  setvalues contour
"cnFillPatterns" : patterns
"cnFillScaleF"   : 0.8
end setvalues
```
Now that you have filled the patterns array with the fill pattern indices that you want for the various contour levels, use the setvalues statement to set the cnFillPatterns resource to this array and to change the default value of cnFillScaleF from 1.0 to 0.8 to make the patterns more dense. setvalues is described in more detail in example 9.

Line 120:

```  draw(contour)
```
Now draw the contour plot with a call to draw.

Lines 122-125:

```  txres               = True
txres@txFontHeightF = 0.015
gsn_text_ndc(wks,":F25:U Component",  .270,.815,txres)
gsn_text_ndc(wks,":F25:(m-s:S:-1:N:)",.765,.815,txres)
```
Put two titles at the top of the plot (one on the left and one on the right) with calls to gsn_text_ndc. The partial string ":F25" is a text function code that changes the font to "Times-Roman".

Lines 128-130:

```  txres@txFontHeightF = 0.025
txres@txAngleF      = 90.
gsn_text_ndc(wks,":F25:Height (km)",.89,.5,txres)
```
Label the right Y axis with a call to gsn_text_ndc. By setting txAngleF to 90.0, you are rotating the string 90 degrees counter-clockwise (the default is no rotation).

Line 132:

```  frame(wks)
```
Advance the frame of the workstation.

Line 134:

```;----------- Begin second plot -----------------------------------------
```
Create an XY plot to draw slices of the unew data.

Line 136:

```  delete(resources)
```
Since the resources you previously set were for a contour plot, start over with a new list of resources for an XY plot.

Lines 143-149:

```  resources@tmXBMode      = "Explicit"
resources@tmXBLabelFont = 25
resources@tmXBLabelFontHeightF = 0.015
resources@tmXBMinorOn   = False
resources@tmXBValues    = ispan(0,12,1)
resources@tmXBLabels    = (/"Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","May","Jun",\
"Jul","Aug","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dec","Jan"/)
```
Label the X axis with strings indicating the month of the year, just as you did for the contour plot in this example.

Line 151:

```  xy = gsn_xy(wks,ispan(0,12,1),unew,resources)
```
To draw slices of unew at every Y value in unew, just pass the whole unew array to the gsn_xy routine. The X values that you are plotting unew against are just the months of the year, so use ispan(0,12,1) to pass in X values of 0, 1, . . ., 12.

Line 153:

```end
```
End the main program of the NCL script.